Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-March 2018
Volume 9 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-174

Online since Friday, January 19, 2018

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Epilepsy, behavioral problems, and intellectual disability among children in India: Conundrums and challenges Highly accessed article p. 1
Ram Lakhan, Olúgbémiga T Ekundayo, Manoj Sharma
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_477_17  PMID:29456334
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Botulinum toxin for refractory trigeminal neuralgia: A trial sequential analysis of randomized clinical trials p. 3
Kannan Sridharan, Gowri Sivaramakrishnan
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_447_17  PMID:29456335
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Using of fresh cadaveric cow brain in the microsurgical training model for sulcal-cisternal and fissural dissection p. 5
Raghunath Avanali
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_464_17  PMID:29456336
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Evaluation of predictive factors influencing community reintegration in adult patients with stroke Highly accessed article p. 6
Olajide Ayinla Olawale, Jibrin Sammani Usman, Kayode Israel Oke, Oladunni Caroline Osundiya
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_386_17  PMID:29456337
Objectives: Patients with stroke are faced with gait, balance, and fall difficulties which could impact on their community reintegration. In Nigeria, community reintegration after stroke has been understudied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictors of community reintegration in adult patients with stroke. Materials and Methods: Participants were 91 adult patients with stroke. Gait variables, balance self-efficacy, community balance/mobility, and fall self-efficacy were assessed using Rivermead Mobility Index, Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, Community Balance and Mobility Scale, and Falls Efficacy Scale-International respectively. Reintegration to Normal Living Index was used to assess satisfaction with community reintegration. Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient was used to determine the relationship between community reintegration and gait spatiotemporal variables, balance performance, and risk of fall. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine predictors of community reintegration (P ≤ 0.05). Results: There was significant positive relationship between community reintegration and cadence (r = 0.250, P = 0.017), functional mobility (r = 0.503, P = 0.001), balance self-efficacy (r = 0.608, P = 0.001), community balance/mobility (r = 0.586, P = 0.001), and duration of stroke (r = 0.220, P = 0.036). Stride time (r = −0.282, P = 0.073) and fall self-efficacy (r = 0.566, P = 0.001) were negatively correlated with community reintegration. Duration of stroke, balance self-efficacy, community balance/mobility, and fall self-efficacy (52.7% of the variance) were the significant predictors of community reintegration. Conclusion: Community reintegration is influenced by cadence, functional mobility, balance self-efficacy, community balance/mobility, and duration of stroke. Hence, improving balance and mobility during rehabilitation is important in enhancing community reintegration in patients with stroke.
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Study of knowledge, attitude, and practice in participants with regular intake of lathyrus, but no spastic paraparesis p. 11
Rameshwar Nath Chaurasia, Abhishek Pathak, Smriti Singh, Deepika Joshi, Vijay Nath Mishra
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_305_17  PMID:29456338
Background and Purpose: Neurolathyrism is now a disease of the past and also the causative agent, Lathyrus sativus (Khesari Pulse or keerai in Local Hindi and Bhojpuri language) has now been proven to be harmless and has become part of the usual diet. Materials and Methods: The population at risk was screened and studied for demography, economic status, knowledge about Khesari pulse, awareness about so-called harmful effects of Khesari pulse intake in humans, and the effects of ban of Khesari pulse on the population which is using Lathyrus (Khesari) as a major source of pulse since the past 4 years through a questionnaire of three pages. Results: Nearly 97% of total screened population totally fed on Khesari pulse as their major source of food and we did not found a single case of primary walking difficulty. We did find three cases of poststroke paralysis, a case of post-GBS lower limb weakness, and a case of recurrent myelitis as a part of questionnaire-based study and then followed by personally examining the patients to confirm the diagnosis. Conclusion: Khesari pulse if consumed in smaller quantities as a part of a normal mixed diet, its nutritional values can be optimally utilized.
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Retrospective analysis of arthrodesis from various options after anterior cervical discectomy p. 14
Vinaysagar Sharma, Shashwat Kumar Singh
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_366_17  PMID:29456339
Introduction: Anterior cervical discectomy is a surgical procedure performed to treat a herniated/degenerated disc in the cervical region. There have been various studies comparing arthrodesis rates among various procedures. Our patients belonged to varied socioeconomic background and underwent anterior cervical microdiscectomy without/with instrumentation. Aim: The present study was performed to study and compare the arthrodesis rates in the patients operated for anterior cervical microdiscectomy with and without fusion/instrumentation procedures at our institution. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study performed at Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bengaluru. Pre- and post-operative X-rays were assessed in 96 patients who had undergone anterior cervical discectomy with/without fusion from June 2012 to June 2015. Radiographic arthrodesis was assessed in all patients. An arbitrary grading was designed by us and categorized into Grade I to IV. The criteria considered for adequate arthrodesis in this study were: (a) <2° movement on dynamic X-rays, (b) restored disc space height (±2 mm accepted), and (c) evidence of solid bone mass around disc space. Arthrodesis was categorized as Grade I if all the above 3 criteria on X-rays was fulfilled, Grade II if any 2 of the criteria was fulfilled, Grade III if any 1 of the criteria was fulfilled, and Grade IV when pseudoarthrosis/none of the criteria was fulfilled. Grade I arthrodesis was noted in about 79 patients (82.2%), Grade II in 14 patients, and only 3 patients had Grade III arthrodesis. There were no patients with absent arthrodesis/pseudoarthrosis. Results: Satisfactory arthrodesis was noted in 82% of the total patients, with patients undergoing fusion ± instrumentation procedure having better results. Conclusions: Arthrodesis by an interbody graft/implant with/without plating increases chances of success as compared to anterior cervical discectomy alone. Patients should be motivated for any of the available options for fusion/instrumentation
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Acute febrile encephalopathy in children: A prospective study of clinical features, etiology, mortality, and risk factors from Western India p. 19
Kirti Gupta, Charul S Purani, Anirban Mandal, Amitabh Singh
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_93_17  PMID:29456340
Introduction: Acute febrile encephalopathy (AFE) in children is a medical emergency and could be a manifestation of many systemic and central nervous system pathologies. The clinical features of AFE are nonspecific and etiological spectrum variable depending on the studied population. Materials and Methods: A prospective, observational study was carried out including children aged between 1 month and 12 years with AFE admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary care hospital in Western India. The primary objective was to assess the clinical presentation and etiology of AFE while the secondary objectives were to correlate the clinical and etiological findings and to determine the risk factors associated with mortality. Results: Out of the ninety children with AFE included in this study, male:female ratio was 1.2:1; most of them were aged between 1 and 5 years and came with a history of <7 days (82.2%). All of them had altered sensorium, about 2/3rd had seizures and 47.8% having a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) <8. Etiology remained elusive in about 40% of the cases, and viral infections were the most common among the ones with an identifiable cause. A variety of morbidity (shock, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, respiratory failure, etc.) and high mortality (40%) was observed with risk factors associated with mortality being GCS <8, the presence of raised intracranial pressure, shock, and respiratory failure. Conclusion: AFE, though a rare diagnosis in children, is associated with significant morbidity and high mortality in a developing country like India.
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Using of fresh cadaveric cow brain in the microsurgical training model for sulcal-cisternal and fissural dissection p. 26
Ahmet Gökyar, Cengiz Cokluk
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_390_17  PMID:29456341
Objective: The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the feasibility of using fresh cadaveric cow brain as in a training model for microsurgical dissection of sulcus, cisterns, and fissure. Methods: Experimental microneurosurgical activities in this study were performed under the operating microscope. Bilateral sylvian cisterns, interhemispheric fissure, and hemispheric sulcus of the fresh cadaveric cow brain were used as an interested area for this experimental study. The dissection was continued reaching down to the floor of the cistern and total dissection of the middle cerebral artery inside the cisternal space. The suitability of a cow brain as a training model for sylvian fissure microdissection was evaluated as three groups; bad, good, and perfect. Results: Ten uncovered fresh cadaveric cow brains were used in this experimental feasibility study. The suitability of the experiment for training model was evaluated as bad in (1) 10% of the fresh cadaveric cow brains. The suitability was found as good in (6) 60% of the procedures. In the remaining (3) 30% of the brain dissection, the suitability of the experiment was evaluated as perfect. Conclusion: In conclusion, performing the sulcal, cisternal, and fissural dissection and protecting the neural and vascular tissue from the mechanical bruising effect of metallic microsurgical instruments are feasible as shown in this study. We believe that this training model will contribute to the practical micro-neurosurgery. Additionally, it provides adequate performance for the microsurgical intervention.
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Immune-mediated neuropathies our experience over 3 years p. 30
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Venkata Raviteja Karru, MA Mukheem Mudabbir, Subashree Ramakrishnan, Anitha Mahadevan
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_376_17  PMID:29456342
Introduction: Immune-mediated peripheral neuropathy is the term applied to a spectrum of peripheral nerve disorders where immune dysregulation plays a role. Therefore, they are treatable. We analyzed the cases seen in the past 3 years by us and evaluated the clinical, laboratory, and outcome parameters in these patients. Patients and Methods: Consecutive patients seen by the authors and diagnosed as immune-mediated neuropathy were analyzed for etiology, pathology, and outcome assessed. Results: A total of sixty patients, 31 acute and 29 chronic neuropathies, were identified. Their subtypes treatment and outcome assessed. Males were significantly more in both acute and chronic cases. Miller Fisher 4, AMAN 1, paraplegic type 1, motor dominant type 19, Sensory-motor 1, MADSAM 3, Bifacial 2. Nonsystemic vasculitis was seen in 16 out of 29 chronic neuropathy and HIV, POEMS, and diabetes mellitus one each. Discussion: There is a spectrum of immune-mediated neuropathy which varies in clinical course, response to treatment, etc., Small percentage of uncommon cases are seen. In this group, mortality was nil and morbidity was minimal. Conclusion: Immune-mediated neuropathies are treatable and hence should be diagnosed early for good quality outcome.
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Factors influencing institutional-based pediatric rehabilitation services among caregivers of children with developmental delay in Southwestern Rajasthan p. 36
Kriti Mishra, V Siddharth
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_283_17  PMID:29456343
Context: A limited number of caregivers of children with developmental delay access rehabilitation facilities in India. The study explored utilization of rehabilitation services at a tertiary care setup in southwestern Rajasthan and various factors influencing it. Aims: The aim of this study is to explore rehabilitation service utilization among children with developmental delay at a tertiary care setup and to ascertain factors that influence this pattern. Settings: This study was conducted at the department of physical medicine and rehabilitation at tertiary care setup. Design: This was an observational study. Subjects and Methods: Children with developmental delay who were advised institutional-based rehabilitation were identified over span of 1 year. Those who failed to return for rehabilitation after the first visit were interviewed telephonically. The interview had semi-structured open-ended questions about their reasons for inability to avail services. Statistical Analysis: SPSS statistics 22 was used for descriptive analysis and correlation of variables. Results: Of 230 children with developmental delay visiting department in 1-year duration, 48 took regular rehabilitation. Parents of 129 children with complete records were asked regarding discontinuation. Factors cited by majority were long distance from institute and service at hospital. Other reasons for discontinuation were related to belief system, family issues, time issues, socioeconomic factors, etc. Socioeconomic status was significantly associated with parental education (C = 0.488, P = 0.000) and financial issues. Location of family had significant association with long distance (C = 0.315, P = 0.000), parental education (C = 0.251, P = 0.003), and belief system (C = 0.265, P = 0.002). Conclusions: Distance from institute and quality of hospital service determined rehabilitation service use at a tertiary institute. Other factors such as socioeconomic status, family support, and social belief system must also be addressed while delivering institutional rehabilitation to children.
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Hansen's neuritis revisited – A clinicopathological study p. 42
Navya Jaiswal, Shrijeet Chakraborti, Kashinath Nayak, Shivananda Pai, BP Shelley, Saraswathy Sreeram, KC Rakshith, BV Suresh, ZK Misri, Hansraj Alva, N Shankar
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_438_17  PMID:29456344
Introduction: Leprosy affecting the nerve solely or with concomitant skin lesions is not an uncommon condition in clinical practice. It is responsible for extensive morbidity and often poses a diagnostic challenge. This study aims to highlight the clinicopathological features of Hansen's neuritis (HN). Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, cases of histologically diagnosed HN, from January 2010 to July 2017, were reviewed in the light of clinical features, treatment history, and outcome. Results: There were 18 cases of HN which accounted for 3.97% of total nerve biopsy samples (n = 453) and 0.02% of total histopathology samples (n = 81,013). The male: female ratio was 5:1 in the cases of HN. Age range was 20–79 years with a mean age of 42.4 years (standard deviation: ±14.03). Among the HN cases, there were 13 cases of pure neuritic leprosy (61.1%). Mononeuritis multiplex was the most common finding in the nerve conduction study. Six (33.3%) cases exhibited histological features of borderline tuberculoid leprosy, followed by five (27.8%) cases of mid-borderline features, three (16.7%) cases each of borderline lepromatous and burnt-out HN, and one (5.6%) case of polar tuberculoid leprosy. Lepra bacilli were detected on Fite-Faraco stain in 44.4% cases. Conclusion: Diagnosis of HN depends on astute search for skin lesions, nerve thickening or tenderness, sensory or motor symptoms, histopathological examination, and demonstration of lepra bacilli.
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Rates and correlations of psychiatric drug administration in a rehabilitation center p. 56
Vaios Peritogiannis, Soultana L Papadopoulou, Athina Tatsioni, Artemis Kapsalaki, Vassiliki Siafaka, Katerina Kotsi, Avraam Ploumis
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_218_17  PMID:29456345
Background: Physical injury has been associated with the development of several psychopathological manifestations. Less is known about the use of psychiatric medication in those patients. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the use of psychiatric medication by patients been admitted in a rehabilitation center in a tertiary care teaching hospital and to inquire for the correlations of such drug administration. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 127 patients who had been admitted to a rehabilitation center, being in the postacute phase of their condition during a 2-year period. Patients' medical records were searched for the demographic and clinical information. Results: Analysis was performed for 118 patients, mostly men (62.7%) with the mean age of 57.5 years. About 43.2% of patients (n = 51) were referred for psychiatric consultation, and 39.8% (n = 47) were prescribed a psychiatric drug. Traumatic brain injury was the diagnosis, positively correlated to referral. Twenty-seven out of the 67 nonreferred patients (40.3%) were prescribed psychiatric regimens by physicians. Nearly 38.1% of patients were diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder by the consultation-Liaison psychiatric service. Conclusions: In a rehabilitation center, psychiatric drug administration is common practice and drugs may be prescribed by the center's physicians and by psychiatrists. Such a drug prescription was found to be correlated to referral to the consultation-Liaison psychiatric service.
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The effects of posterior talar glide and dorsiflexion of the ankle plus mobilization with movement on balance and gait function in patient with chronic stroke: A randomized controlled trial p. 61
Sang-Lim Kim, Byoung-Hee Lee
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_382_17  PMID:29456346
Background: This study was to evaluate the effects of weight-bearing-based mobilization with movement (WBBMWM) on balance and gait in stroke patients. Methods: Thirty stroke patients participated in this study. All individuals were randomly assigned to either WBMWM group (n = 15) or weight-bearing with placebo mobilization with movement group (control, n = 15). Individuals in the WBMWM group were trained for 10 glides of 5 sets a day, 5 times a week during 4 weeks. Furthermore, individuals in the control group were trained for 10 lunges of 5 sets a day, 5 times a week during 4 weeks. All individuals were measured weight-bearing lunge test (WBLT), static balance ability, timed up and go test (TUG), and dynamic gait index (DGI) in before and after intervention. Results: The result showed that WBBMWM group and control group had significantly increased in WBLT, postural sway speed, total postural sway path length with eyes open and closed, TUG and DGI (P < 0.05). In particular, the WBMWM group showed significantly greater improvement than control group in WBLT, static balance measures, TUG, and DGI (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Therefore, WBMWM improved ankle range of motion, balance, and gait in stroke patients. These results suggest that WBBMWM is feasible and suitable for individuals with a stroke.
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The evolving pattern and outcome of stroke at moderate altitude p. 68
Deepika Dhiman, Sanjay K Mahajan, Sudhir Sharma, Rajiv Raina
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_207_17  PMID:29456347
Background: The people residing in hills of this Sub-Himalayan region traditionally have a distinct lifestyle involving high level of physical activity. However, increased urbanization in the last two decades has led to changes in lifestyle of people. The present study was an endeavor to document changes in the pattern of stroke in people residing at moderate altitude. Aim: This study was aimed to study the evolving trends in clinical profile, risk factors, and outcome at 3 months in hospitalized patients of stroke in a Tertiary Care Hospital situated at moderate altitude. Setting and Design: This prospective, observational study was carried out in a Tertiary Care Hospital, situated at 2000 m mean sea level, from July 2014 to June 2015 in Sub-Himalayan region of India. Methods: The clinical features and risk factors profile of 235 patients of stroke consecutively admitted in hospital were analyzed, and findings were expressed in percentage. The profile was compared with a study conducted at this institute 15 years back. The outcome of patients at 3 months in terms of modified Rankin Scale >3 (mRS) and Barthel Index <60 (BI) was also studied. Results: The occurrence of stroke as a cause of hospitalization was decreasing. Ischemic stroke was noted in 74%, and 26% had hemorrhagic stroke (HS). There was male predominance (58%), but affliction of females with stroke increased from 34% to 42%. The altered sensorium (P = 0.00) and neurological weakness (P = 0.024) were significantly associated with poor outcome in stroke. The occurrence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease increased but smoking decreased among indoor patients of stroke in the last 15 years. Poor outcome of 203 patients at 3 months follow-up in terms of mRS >3 was 79 (IS-47, HS-32) but in term of BI, 63 (IS-32, HS-31) had poor outcome. Overall HS had poorer outcome. Age >70 years, female sex, altered sensorium, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, were observed as poor prognostic factors, but the association was significant with advanced age, headache, and altered sensorium. Conclusion: The occurrence of stroke decreased among hospitalized patients. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease increased but smoking decreased among patients of stroke.
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Efficacy of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to local anesthetic agent in scalp block and scalp infiltration to control postcraniotomy pain: A double-blind randomized trial p. 73
Shankar Vallapu, Nidhi Bidyut Panda, Navneh Samagh, Neerja Bharti
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_310_17  PMID:29456348
Context: Scalp infiltration and scalp block are being used to manage postcraniotomy pain. Dexmedetomidine has been successfully used as an adjuvant in regional anesthesia. The study was intended to compare whether addition of dexmedetomidine prolonged the duration of analgesia as well as to compare the two techniques. Aims: The primary objective was to assess whether addition of dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine prolonged the duration of analgesia. The secondary objective was to compare between scalp nerve block and scalp infiltration as techniques for pain relief. Settings and Design: The randomized control study was conducted in a tertiary care center from November 2013 to October 2014. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status I–II patients, aged 18–70 years undergoing elective craniotomy were included. Patients were randomized into three groups of 50 patients, i.e., Group BI (bupivacaine infiltration), Group BDI (bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine infiltration), and Group BDNB (bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine scalp nerve block). Patient's pain score, pain-free interval, rescue analgesic requirement, and hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were noted for 48 h. Patients were followed up at 1 and 3 months to assess postcraniotomy pain. Results: Pain-free period was significantly longer in Group BDNB than Groups BDI and BI (P < 0.0001) and pain control was better in dexmedetomidine containing groups than in bupivacaine group (BI) (P < 0.0001). The rescue analgesic requirement was significantly lower in Group BDNB and Group BDI compared to Group BI. Conclusion: The addition of dexmedetomidine (1 μg/kg) to bupivacaine prolonged the pain-free period. Scalp nerve block is a superior technique than scalp infiltration.
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Effects of crystalloid preloading (20 ml/kg) on hemodynamics in relation to postural changes in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures in sitting position p. 80
M Ranjith, Prasanna Udupi Bidkar, K Narmadalakshmi, Praveen R Talawar
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_371_17  PMID:29456349
Background: Hemodynamic disturbances are common during positioning the patients from supine to sitting for neurosurgical procedures. The reported incidence of hypotension varies from 5% to 32%. The aim of the study was to study the effect of crystalloid preloading on hemodynamic parameters during positioning the patient from supine to sitting position. Materials and Methods: In this prospective observational trial, 20 patients were enrolled. Two patients had a patent foramen ovale on transesophageal echocardiography and were excluded from the study. All the patients received 20 ml/kg of crystalloid (Ringer's lactate) before initiation of positioning. Physiological hemodynamic parameters such as heart rate, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, cardiac output (CO), stroke volume variation (SVV), cardiac index (CI), stroke volume (SV), and maximum and minimum inferior vena caval diameter (IVCD) were recorded after induction, during positioning at 30°, 60° inclination of the operating table and after the final sitting position. Results: Hemodynamic parameters were well maintained during positioning of the patients from supine to sitting position. Crystalloid preloading prevented the hypotension during positioning. There were no significant changes in hemodynamic parameters such as CO, SVR, SVV, CI, and SV. We did not find any correlation with changes in IVCD with changes in CO. Conclusion: A volume of 20 ml/kg of crystalloid preloading before positioning the patient from supine to sitting position maintains the hemodynamic stability and avoids the vasopressor requirement.
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Recurrent glioblastomas exhibit higher expression of biomarkers with stem-like properties p. 86
BN Nandeesh, Sharmistha Naskar, Arun H Shashtri, A Arivazhagan, Vani Santosh
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_417_17  PMID:29456350
Background: Despite advances in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM), the prognosis of patients continues to remain dismal. This unfavorable prognosis is mainly attributed to the tumor's propensity for progression and recurrence, which in turn is due to the highly aggressive nature of the persisting GBM cells that actively egress from the main tumor mass into the surrounding normal brain tissue. Such a recurrent tumor described to have a more malignant potential is highly invasive and resistant to current therapies, probably due to increased stemness and preferential selection of therapy-resistant clones of tumor cells. However, there is a paucity of literature on the expression of biomarkers in the recurrent GBM tumors that could have a role in conferring this aggressiveness. Aim: To identify the differences in the expression pattern of selected biomarkers in paired tissue samples of GBM. Material and Methods: A retrospective study on 30 paired samples of GBM (newly diagnosed/primary and recurrent) archived in the Department of Neuropathology, NIMHANS (2006–2009), was carried out. After obtaining clinical and demographic details, tumors were characterized histomorphologically and immunohistochemically on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues with reference to expression of biomarkers such as p53, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), sex determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2), and topoisomerase 2 A (Top2A). The results were statistically analyzed. Results: It was observed that while p53 and IGFBP-3 expression remained unaltered in paired samples, a significant increase in the expression of EGFR (P < 0.01) was noted in the recurrent tumors. Among the other biomarkers, SOX2 expression was higher in the recurrent tumors when compared to the primary tumors (P < 0.01). Conversely, the expression of Top2A was reduced in recurrent tumors (P = 0.05). Mild elevation in the expression of IGFBP-3 was observed in recurrent tumors but was not statistically significant. Conclusion: A significant increase in the expression of SOX2 in recurrent tumors probably indicates the presence of undifferentiated cells with stem-like properties in these tumors. EGFR is known to mediate SOX2 expression thereby resulting in stemness of the glioma cancer cells, which could further explain its overexpression in recurrent GBMs. Furthermore, a decreased expression of TOP2A observed in the recurrent tumors could probably be due to reduction in chemosensitivity to temozolomide, which has been shown in earlier studies. We also noted that p53 expression remained unaltered in the recurrent tumors when compared to the primary, suggesting the absence of preferential clonal expansion of p53 mutant cells following exposure to radiochemotherapy. Our study reiterates the fact that GBM recurrences are associated with molecular alterations that probably contribute to radiochemoresistance, increased invasiveness, therapeutic efficacy, and stemness.
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Quality of sleep and sleep disorders in patients with parkinsonism: A polysomnography based study from rural South India p. 92
Dushyanth Babu Jasti, Sarat Mallipeddi, A Apparao, B Vengamma, Satyarao Kolli, A Mohan
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_189_17  PMID:29456351
Objective: The objective of this study is to study the quality of sleep, sleep disorders, and polysomnographic profile in Parkinsonism patients from rural areas and to correlate polysomnographic profile with the staging of disease and with sleep questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Between May 2014 and December 2015, 168 Parkinsonism patients were prospectively screened using sleep questionnaire; Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Parkinson Disease Sleep Score-2 (PDSS-2). Sixty patients underwent overnight polysomnography subsequently. Results: The mean age of 168 patients in the study was 65.3 ± 12.8 years. The mean duration of Parkinsonism was 4.6 ± 3.1 years. The mean ESS, PSQI and PDSS-2 were 12.4 ± 3.2, 7.9 ± 2.1 and 44.7 ± 5.8, respectively. A total of 148 patients (88.1%) had poor quality sleep, which was reported only in 37 patients (22%). Excessive daytime sleepiness (80%) and insomnia (76.7%) were most common symptoms. Polysomnographic profile showed poor sleep efficiency (median interquartile range [IQR] 74.8% [17.8%–99.5%]), reduced slow wave sleep (median [IQR] 0% [0%–9.5%]), and reduced rapid eye movement [REM] sleep (median (IQR) 4.9% [0.1%–24.2%]). Sleep disorders in the study were sleep fragmentation (n = 60, 100%), obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (n = 40, 66.7%), central sleep apnea syndrome (n = 6, 10%), and periodic limb movement disorder (n = 52, 86.7%). Two patients had REM sleep behavioral disorder clinically. There was statistically significant positive correlation between staging of disease, sleep latencies, and sleep questionnaire. Conclusion: Sleep is impaired in majority of Parkinsonism patients which needs to be diagnosed early and managed effectively. Patient education and awareness programs in rural areas regarding sleep disorders in Parkinsonism are required for early diagnosis.
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Efficacy of botulinum toxin type a in trigeminal neuralgia in a South Asian Cohort p. 100
Manjula Chandragomi Caldera, Sameera Jayan Senanayake, Sujith Priyankara Perera, Nadeeke Nidhan Perera, Ranjanie Gamage, Inuka Kishara Gooneratne
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_346_17  PMID:29456352
Introduction: The antinociceptive effect of botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) in trigeminal neuralgia (TN) has been described. We evaluated effects of BTX-A in relieving pain in patients with refractory TN at National Hospital of Sri Lanka. Materials and Methods: Pain in patients with TN was assessed using a visual analog from 0 to 10. Three months after commencement of drug therapy with ≥2 drugs including one first-line drug (carbamazepine/oxcarbazepine), pain scores were re-assessed. Twenty-two patients who did not report improvement of ≥50% at 90 days' posttreatment were recruited. They were given adjunct BTX-A directly to the trigger point (if identified) or intradermal. Pain scores were assessed at 10, 20, 30, 60, and 90 days' posttreatment. Results: There was a statistically significant improvement in mean pain scores at 10, 20, 30, 60, and 90 days' posttreatment (5.59 [standard deviation (SD) = 2.7], 5.68 [SD = 2.6], 5.27 [SD = 3.2], 4.77 [SD = 3.7], and 5.32 [SD = 4.0]) compared to pre-BTX-A treatment (7.14, SD = 2.2). Percentage reduction in mean pain score ranged from 20.4% to 33.1%. Maximum response was at day 60 post-BTX-A (50% had ≥50% reduction in pain). No significant difference was found in response with higher doses and injection strategy. Conclusion: Consistent statistically significant reductions in pain scores at the aforesaid intervals compared to pretreatment means that there is a place for BTX in refractory TN.
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The utility of preoperative acth/cortisol ratio for the diagnosis and prognosis of cushing's disease p. 106
Alev Selek, Berrin Cetinarslan, Zeynep Canturk, Ilhan Tarkun, Ozlem Zeynep Akyay, Burak Cabuk, Savas Ceylan
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_308_17  PMID:29456353
Purpose: Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare disease having diagnostic difficulties. Many diagnostic tests have been defined but none of these are diagnostic alone. Determination of the cause is another problem which sometimes requires more sophisticated and invasive procedures. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the utility of pretreatment plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)/cortisol ratios in patients with confirmed endogenous CS for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of CS. Materials and Methods: This retrospective evaluation included 145 patients with the diagnosis of CS, 119 patients with Cushing's disease (CD), and 26 patients with ACTH-independent CS (AICS), in a university hospital. Furthermore, 114 individuals in whom CS diagnosis was excluded with at least one negative screening test were enrolled to the study as control group. The clinical, laboratory, imaging, postsurgical pathologic records and also clinical follow-up data of all patients were evaluated. Results: The median basal ACTH/cortisol ratio of the patients with CD was significantly higher than AICS and controls. A cutoff ACTH/cortisol ratio >2.5 was found to be diagnostic for CD with 82% specificity and 63% sensitivity. Among CD group, patients with recurrent disease had higher preoperative ACTH levels and ACTH/cortisol ratio than patients with sustained remission. Furthermore, these patients had more invasive, atypical, and larger tumors. Conclusion: An ACTH/cortisol ratio >2.5 would be beneficial to diagnose CD together with other diagnostic tests. It is a simple test with no additional cost. Higher ratios might be related with larger, invasive, and atypical adenoma and also might be helpful to predict recurrence.
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Impact of aging on nerve conduction velocities and late responses in healthy individuals p. 112
Suchitra Sachin Palve, Sachin Bhaskar Palve
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_323_17  PMID:29456354
Background: Nerve conduction studies are performed to diagnose the disorders of the peripheral nervous system. The reference values for nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and late responses for different nerves considerably vary in different group and type of population. Physiological factors such as age, temperature, height, and gender affect the NCV. However, there are very few studies which show the age group at which these changes become significant. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to establish the electrophysiological data of the specific age group at which changes in NCV as well as late responses of median common peroneal nerve and also see the late response in the form of F-waves and H-reflex. Methodology: Study groups were divided into three categories based on the age: Group I (18–30 years) (n = 80), Group II (31–45 years) (n = 43), and Group III (46–60 years) (n = 27). Out of which, 93 patients were male and 57 were female. The NCVs were determined for median, common peroneal nerve (motor component and sensory component) along with late responses in the form of H-reflex and F-waves. Results: The mean and standard deviation of median, ulnar, peroneal, and tibial nerve was studied for latencies, amplitude, and velocities for both sensory and motor components. Patients with older age had longer latencies, smaller amplitudes, and slower conduction velocities compared with the younger age group. The change with age was greater in sensory nerve conduction and late responses in all the peripheral nerves. Conclusions: Aging has a definite correlation with the NCV and late responses of different peripheral nerves. There is a need to have reference values with relation to age.
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Role of yoga in management of substance-use disorders: A narrative review p. 117
Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Arpit Parmar, Ankit Gupta, Yatan Pal Singh Balhara
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_243_17  PMID:29456355
Substance use disorders are comparable to chronic medical illnesses and have a chronic relapsing course. Despite being significant contributors to morbidity and mortality, limited treatment options exist. The current narrative review was aimed at providing an overview of yoga therapy in substance-use disorders and discuss the relevant methodological issues. Articles published in English language till May 2017 indexed with PubMed, PubMed central, and Google Scholar were searched using search terms “Yoga,” “Substance use,” “Drug dependence,” “Nicotine,” “Tobacco,” “Alcohol,” “Opioids,” “Cannabis,” “Cocaine,” “Stimulants,” “Sedative hypnotics,” “Inhalants,” and “Hallucinogens” for inclusion in the review. A total of 314 studies were found fulfilling the stated criteria. Out of which, 16 studies were found to fulfill the inclusion and exclusion criteria and 12 were randomized control trials. The majority of studies were available on the role of yoga in management of nicotine dependence. Sample size of these studies ranged from 18 to 624. The majority of studies suggested the role of yoga in reducing substance use as well as substance-related craving (especially in nicotine-use disorders) in short term. However, more studies are required for demonstrating the long-term effects of yoga therapy in substance-use disorder.
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The current state of rural neurosurgical practice: An international perspective p. 123
Pavan S Upadhyayula, John K Yue, Jason Yang, Harjus S Birk, Joseph D Ciacci
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_273_17  PMID:29456356
Introduction: Rural and low-resource areas have diminished capacity to care for neurosurgical patients due to lack of infrastructure, healthcare investment, and training programs. This review summarizes the range of rural neurosurgical procedures, novel mechanisms for delivering care, rapid training programs, and outcome differences across international rural neurosurgical practice. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed for English language manuscripts with keywords “rural” and “neurosurgery” using the National Library of Medicine PubMed database (01/1971–06/2017). Twenty-four articles focusing on rural non-neurosurgical practice were included. Results: Time to care and/or surgery and shortage of trained personnel remain the strongest risk factors for mortality and poor outcome. Telemedicine consults to regional centers with neurosurgery housestaff have potential for increased timeliness of diagnosis/triage, improved time to surgery, and reductions in unnecessary transfers in remote areas. Mobile neurosurgery teams have been deployed with success in nations with large transport distances precluding initial transfers. Common neurosurgical procedures involve trauma mechanisms; accordingly, training programs for nonneurosurgery medical personnel on basic assessment and operative techniques have been successful in resource-deficient settings where neurosurgeons are unavailable. Conclusions: Protracted transport times, lack of resources/training, and difficulty retaining specialists are barriers to successful outcomes. Advances in telemedicine, mobile neurosurgery, and training programs for urgent operative techniques have been implemented efficaciously. Development of guidelines for paired partnerships between rural centers and academic hospitals, supplying surplus technology to rural areas, and rapid training of qualified local surgical personnel can create sustainable feed-forward programs for trainees and infrastructural solutions to address challenges in rural neurosurgery.
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Role of exclusive breastfeeding in conferring protection in children at-risk for autism spectrum disorder: results from a sibling case–control study Highly accessed article p. 132
Harshini Manohar, Madhavapuri Pravallika, Preeti Kandasamy, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Ravi Philip Rajkumar
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_331_17  PMID:29456357
Background: Gut microflora influences neural development through complex mechanisms. Feeding practices, especially breastfeeding influence gut microbiome and thereby play a pivotal role in immune and neural development. Current understandings of the role of healthy distal gut microflora in the development of immune and neural systems provide insights into immunological mechanisms as one of the possible etiologies in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies have shown that optimal breastfeeding is associated with lower odds of being at-risk for ASD and children with ASD are suboptimally breastfed. Methods: The feeding practices of children with ASD (n = 30) was compared to their typically developing siblings as matched controls (n = 30). Information regarding feeding practices was collected from mothers through a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: About 43.3% of children with ASD received exclusive breastfeeding, whereas 76.7% of their typically developing siblings were exclusively breastfed. Exclusive breastfeeding was associated with lower odds for ASD (odds ratio [OR] = 0.166; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.025–0.65), while early introduction of top feeds was associated with higher odds (OR = 6; 95% CI = 1.33–55.19). Difficulties in breastfeeding were attributed to child-related factors in 13.2% of the children. Conclusion: Children with ASD are suboptimally breastfed compared to their typically developing siblings. Exclusive breastfeeding may confer protection in vulnerable children. Further studies on larger prospective sample are required to establish the association.
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Surgically treated primary spinal cord neoplasms in Southeastern Nigeria p. 137
Mark Chukwunweike Chikani, Okwuoma Okwunodulu, Mathew Mesi, Wilfred C Mezue, Samuel C Ohaegbulam, Chika C Ndubuisi
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_391_17  PMID:29456358
Background: Primary spinal cord tumors are not as frequently encountered as their cranial counterparts. They could present in such an indolent manner that requires a reasonable index of suspicion for their diagnosis to be considered. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze the incidence and pattern of primary spinal cord and appendage neoplasms in patients surgically treated in our institution over a decade of practice. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of clinical, radiological, and histopathology profiles of patients surgically treated for primary spinal cord tumor from 2006 to 2016 was carried out. Retrieved data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: Out of 472 spine procedures were performed within the study period 17 (3.6%) cases of histologically proven primary spinal cord tumors were identified. The age of patients ranged between 17 and 77 years with a mean age was 45 years. The male: female ratio was 1:1.1. Motor deficit and pain were the most common presenting symptoms seen in 35.3% and 29.4% of patients, respectively. Meningiomas are the most common histological diagnosis (70.6%), distantly followed by Schwannoma (17.6%). The most common location of the tumors was intradural extramedullary (70.6%). All patients had gross total resection of tumor with no perioperative mortality. Conclusion: Meningioma is the most common surgically treated primary spinal cord tumor in our setting. Surgery is associated with good outcome.
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Comparison of computerized and standard cognitive test in thai memory clinic p. 140
Pornpatr A Dharmasaroja, Disya Ratanakorn, Samart Nidhinandana, Thammanard Charernboon
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_373_17  PMID:29456359
Background: Computer-based Thai Cognitive Test or Computer-based Thai Mental State Examination (cTMSE) was developed aiming to help doctors to easily get the accurate results of TMSE in a routine, busy outpatient clinics. The purpose of this study was to compare the evaluation process in terms of feasibility, duration of the test, participants/administrator preference, and the results of cognitive test between cTMSE and the standard Thai Mental State Examination (sTMSE). Methods: Twenty-two elderly participants (>60 years old) who were not demented and 22 patients with mild-to-moderate dementia were included in the study. All participants would be asked to have TMSE by standard method (sTMSE) and computer-based method (cTMSE), at least 2 weeks and up to 2 months apart. Scores and duration of the test were compared using dependent paired t-test. Agreement of the tests between two methods and Kappa statistics were analyzed. Results: Paired t-test showed no significant difference in scores between the two methods (mean sTMSE vs. cTMSE: 22.84 vs. 22.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [−0.465] to 0.987, P = 0.524). Percent of agreement between the two methods was 92.5%, with the Kappa of 0.85 (P < 0.001). Duration of the test by sTMSE was slightly shorter than the cTMSE (7.31 min vs. 7.97 min, 95% CI: [−1.159] to [−0.175], P = 0.09). Overall, participants liked being tested by cTMSE more than sTMSE. Conclusion: Computer-based TMSE was feasible to use and accurate for screening in aging adults and for cognitive evaluation in patients with mild-to-moderate dementia.
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Clinical features and psychiatric comorbidity of epicrania fugax p. 143
K Rammohan, MM Shyma, Soumitra Das, C Velayudhan Shaji
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_304_17  PMID:29456360
Background: Epicrania fugax (EF) is a rare newly described primary headache characterized by paroxysms of unilateral pain radiating across one hemicranium. Aim: We aimed to describe 10 new cases of EF and assess the psychiatric comorbidity. Materials and Methods: Cases of EF were identified from patients attending the neurology outpatient department of a tertiary level referral and teaching hospital by the first author during a period extending from January 1, 2015 to April 31, 2017. Case ascertainment was done as per ICHD 3 beta criteria from among patients presenting with complaints of headache after detailed history and clinical examination. Clinical and demographic features were noted and patients were subjected to Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview to screen for psychiatric comorbidity followed by Becks Anxiety/Depression Inventory. Results: A total of 10 subjects were obtained during the study period, 4 males, and 6 females. Mean age of subjects was 45.3 years (standard deviation-10). Seventy percent had anteroposterior, and 30% had posteroanterior radiation of pain. The most common character of pain was stabbing (50%) followed by electrical (40%) and pressing (10%). None of the subjects had autonomic symptoms or focal symptoms in the scalp while 30% subjects had hyperesthesia in the affected area of the scalp.Six subjects (60%) patients had episodic course while 40% had chronic course. Sixty percent had comorbid anxiety while one (10%) had comorbid depression. A significant relation was obtained between duration of disease and occurrence of anxiety as well as Becks Anxiety Inventory scores while there was no correlation with attack duration. There was also a nonsignificant correlation between visual analog score and occurrence of anxiety symptoms. Conclusions: Our study conclusively proves the existence of EF as a rare, distinct primary headache syndrome in our study population. It has a significant psychiatric comorbidity consisting of 60% of generalized anxiety disorder, 10% of panic attacks, and 10% of depression.
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Upper cervical bronchogenic cyst: A rare condition at a rare location p. 149
Ranjeet Kumar Jha, Chandan B Mohanty, Chandrashekhar E Deopujari, Salman Tehran Shaikh
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_436_17  PMID:29456361
Intraspinal bronchogenic cyst (SBC) is a rare but important cause of spinal cord compression, commonly seen in the cervicothoracic spine. We report a case of a 43-year-old male, presenting with complaints of neck pain, radiating to right shoulder, with numbness of right hand and fingers. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine revealed an intradural extramedullary, ventral cystic lesion extending from C2 to C4 vertebral levels. Complete surgical excision was performed, and the patient had a complete relief of symptoms postoperatively. Only 11 cases of SBCs have been reported in literature. We discuss the peculiar location of this lesion, possible embryological reasons and the overall surgical outcome of SBC.
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Joubert syndrome with orofacial digital features p. 152
Parveen Bhardwaj, Minoo Sharma, Karan Ahluwalia
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_338_17  PMID:29456362
Joubert syndrome (JS) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by hypotonia, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, ocular abnormalities (e.g., pigmentary retinopathy, oculomotor apraxia, and nystagmus), renal cysts, and hepatic fibrosis. Respiratory abnormalities, as apnea and hyperpnea, may be present, as well as mental retardation. Since the clinical findings of JS are quite heterogeneous, determination of radiological findings is essential.
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Inadvertent central arterial catheterization: An unusual cause of ischemic stroke p. 155
Nakul Katyal, Amanda Korzep, Christopher Newey
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_460_17  PMID:29456363
Central venous catheter (CVC) insertion is extensively utilized in Intensive Care Units for evaluation of hemodynamic status, administration of intravenous drugs, and for providing nutritional support in critically ill patients. Unfortunately, CVC use is associated with complications including lung injury, bleeding, infection, and thrombosis. We present a patient with an acute ischemic stroke from an inadvertently placed CVC into the right common carotid artery. A 57-year-old male presented to our institution for left hemiplegia and seizures 2 days after a CVC was placed. He was found to have a right frontal ischemic stroke on computed tomography (CT). CT angiography noted that the catheter was arterial and had a thrombosis around it. He was started on a low-dose heparin infusion. A combination of cardiothoracic surgery and interventional cardiology was required to safely remove the catheter. Central arterial catheterization is an unusual cause for acute ischemic stroke and presents management challenges.
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Radiologically indistinguishable contiguous meningioma and schwannoma in the same cerebellopontine angle in a patient with NF2: Case report and literature review p. 159
Satyashiva Munjal, Amit Srivastava, Sunila Jain, VS Mehta
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_268_17  PMID:29456364
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Dyspraxic gait due to right posterior cerebral artery stroke p. 162
Halil Onder
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_314_17  PMID:29456365
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Delicate situation of bipolar disorder and interferon therapy p. 164
Chadya Aarab, Rachid Aalouane, Said Boujraf, Ismail Rammouz
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_179_17  PMID:29456366
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Serial diffusion-weighted imaging in transient global amnesia? p. 166
Halil Onder
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_465_17  PMID:29456367
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Irreversible hypersomnolence after bilateral thalamic infarction p. 167
Mihail Mogildea, Miguel Varela, Cristiana Martins, Natercia Joaquim, Jose Soleiro, Hipolito Nzwalo
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_260_17  PMID:29456368
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Commentary p. 169
Vikas Dhikav, Kuljeet Singh Anand
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_435_17  PMID:29456369
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Prolactin secreting pituitary carcinoma with extracranial spread presenting with pathological fracture of femur p. 170
Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Guru Dutta Satyarthee, Willem Guillermo Calderon-Miranda, Jorge Aquino Matus, Alfonso Pacheco-Hernandez, Paulo Cesar Puac-Polanco, Amit Agrawal
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_325_17  PMID:29456370
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Rarely encountered, seldom considered: Posterior tibial nerve schwannoma mimicking lumbar radiculopathy p. 173
Dhruv Kumar Agarwal, Eswararao Thamatapu, Sugat Sanyal, Prasad Krishnan
DOI:10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_359_17  PMID:29456371
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