Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-March 2019
Volume 10 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-171

Online since Friday, January 4, 2019

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Migraine and mood disorders: Prevalence, clinical correlations, and disability p. 1
Sita Jayalakshmi, Sudhindra Vooturi
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A new era in stereotactic brain biopsy: Frameless navigation-based system p. 3
Murat Şakir Ekşi
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Anxiety, depression, and its relationship with migraine p. 4
Vimal Kumar Paliwal
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Central nervous system tuberculosis – The gray area in tuberculosis treatment Highly accessed article p. 6
Joe James
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Utilization of “Screening brief intervention and referral to treatment” approach for tobacco addiction in day-to-day clinical practice in India: The need of the hour p. 8
Roshan Bhad
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Geographical disparity and traumatic brain injury in America: Rural areas suffer poorer outcomes p. 10
Joshua B Brown, Marin Kheng, Nancy A Carney, Andres M Rubiano, Juan Carlos Puyana
Introduction: Significant heterogeneity exists in traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcomes. In the United States, TBI remains a primary driver of injury-related mortality and morbidity. Prior work has suggested that disparity exists in rural areas; our objective was to evaluate potential differences in TBI mortality across urban and rural areas on a national scale. Methods: Age-adjusted TBI fatality rates were obtained at the county level across the U.S. from 2008 to 2014. To evaluate geography, urban influence codes (UIC) were also obtained at the county level. UIC codes range from 1 (most urban) to 12 (most rural). Metropolitan counties are defined as those with an UIC ≤2, while nonmetropolitan counties are defined as an UIC ≥3. County-level fatality rates and UIC classification were geospatially mapped. Linear regression was used to evaluate the change in TBI fatality rate at each category of UIC. The median TBI fatality rate was also compared between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties. Results: Geospatial analysis demonstrated higher fatality rates distributed among nonmetropolitan counties across the United States. The TBI fatality rate was 13.00 deaths per 100,000 persons higher in the most rural UIC category compared to the most urban UIC category (95% confidence interval 12.15, 13.86; P < 0.001). The median TBI rate for nonmetropolitan counties was significantly higher than metropolitan counties (22.32 vs. 18.22 deaths per 100,000 persons, P < 0.001). Conclusions: TBI fatality rates are higher in rural areas of the United States. Additional studies to evaluate the mechanisms and solutions to this disparity are warranted and may have implications for lower-and middle-income countries.
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Vitamin D deficiency in children with psychiatric illness in a tertiary care hospital in North India p. 16
Nidhi Chauhan, Susanta Kumar Padhy, Ruchita Shah, Savita Malhotra
Background: Vitamin D is increasingly recognized as important for brain health, apart from its role in endocrine and bone health. There is a growing recognition of worldwide “epidemic” of Vitamin D deficiency, and growing data from adult population illustrate the association between Vitamin D deficiency and psychiatric disorders. In children, its role is implicated in brain development, function, and psychiatric disorders. Aim: The aim of this study was to study the extent of Vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Methodology: Retrospective chart review of participants, who had attended the psychiatry outpatient department, was conducted to ascertain the extent of blood Vitamin D level requisition and its level. Results: Out of 836, 60 participants had received the requisition for blood Vitamin D level, and results were documented for 40 participants (males – 28; females – 12). No specific reason was cited for getting Vitamin D level done. The mean Vitamin D level was in the deficient range, i.e. 13.34 ng/ml with 80% of the sample having Vitamin D deficiency and 13% having insufficient Vitamin D level. More males had Vitamin D deficiency, however, the small number of females in the study limits the generalizability of the results. Among the diagnostic categories, neurodevelopmental disorders had lower mean Vitamin D level, with lowest Vitamin D for autism, i.e., 10.9 ng/ml. Conclusion: The cause-effect relationship between Vitamin D deficiency and childhood psychiatric disorders could not be derived from the study. However, it provides important initial data for the relationship between Vitamin D deficiency and childhood psychiatric disorders from India.
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Role of decompressive laminectomy without instrumentation in the management of nurick Grade 4 and 5 cervical compressive myelopathy p. 21
Sunil Malagi, Subhas Konar, Dhaval P Shukla, Dhananjaya I Bhat, Nishanth Sadashiva, Bhagavatula I Indira Devi
Introduction: Cervical laminectomy is a very well-known posterior decompressive procedure for cervical compressive myelopathy (CCM). Our objective is to evaluate the functional effect of posterior decompressive laminectomy for poor grade CCM. Methods: This study was an observational retrospective study carried out on patients with poor-grade CCM who underwent decompressive laminectomy from January 2010 to December 2015. Patients with Nurick Grades 4 and 5 (walking with support or bedbound) were included in the study. Clinical data and radiological information were collected from medical records, and objective scales were applied to compare the surgical outcome between preoperative score and postoperative score. Results: A total of 69 patients who underwent decompressive laminectomy for poor grade CCM were included. The mean age was 54.9 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 5.3:1. Ossified posterior longitudinal ligament comprised 52.6% cases. The follow-up data of at least 6 months' duration after surgery was available for 57 (82.6%) cases. On comparing with preoperative Nurick grade at follow-up, 40 of the 57 patients (70.2%) were found to have improvement following surgery by at least one grade. The remaining 17 (29.8%) had either remained the same or had deteriorated further. The mean preoperative modified Japanese Orthopedic Association score was 8.4 ± 2.8, and the mean follow-up score was 11.8±0.3 (P = 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, the number of levels of laminectomy, postoperative deterioration, and anesthesia grade were predictors of outcome. Conclusion: Decompressive laminectomy for poor grade myelopathy is effective in improving functional outcome.
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Migraine and mood disorders: Prevalence, clinical correlations and disability p. 28
K Rammohan, Shyma Manikkoth Mundayadan, Soumitra Das, C Velayudhan Shaji
Introduction: Both migraine and mood disorders are prevalent disorders with many studies demonstrating that they are comorbid with each other with increased migraine-related disability in such patients. Aim: The aim of the study is to test the hypothesis that mood disorders are comorbid with migraine with increased disability and to identify any clinical features in migraineurs which may be associated with mood disorders. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting with complaints of headache to the Neurology Outpatient Department of a Tertiary CARE Hospital from August 01, 2016 to February 28, 2017, were subjected to International Classification of Headache Disorder 3 beta criteria to satisfy a diagnosis of migraine and were assessed in detail as to headache characteristics. Mood disorders were assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and migraine-related disability was assessed by Migraine Disability Assessment Questionnaire. Patients with serious medical complaints, known previous psychiatric disease, other types of headaches and recent prophylactic drug intake were carefully excluded. Results: A total of 133 patients were studied. The duration and frequency of migraine headaches were found to correlate with the presence of mood disorders and the migraine-related disability in patients with comorbid mood disorders was significantly higher. Factors such as total duration of migraine, aura, vomiting, phono, and photophobia were not found to be statistically correlated with mood disorders. Conclusions: Rates of depression and anxiety in migraine vary widely in various studies due to variations in study criteria, population characteristics and various scales used. We found a prevalence of 16.54% of anxiety and 9.02% of depression in migraineurs, a rate comparable to or less than many studies in international literature and a significantly increased disability in individuals with comorbid mood disorders and migraine. Routinely including questionnaires such as HAD in screening patients with migraine to rule out comorbid mood disorders may be warranted. Because we have carefully excluded all other primary (especially tension and medication overuse headaches) and secondary headaches and selected prophylactic drug naïve patients, we contend that this study provides a clear clinical profile of migraineurs with mood disorders.
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Is crush cytology of central nervous system lesions relevant in surgical practice today? p. 34
Krishan Kumar Yadav, Rashmi Bhatti, Nikhil Moorchung, Deepti Mutreja, Ajay S Carvalho
Background: Intraoperative crush cytology is a useful tool for diagnosing the lesions of the central nervous system (CNS). However, because of the development of newer and better imaging techniques, it is important to evaluate if crush cytology is still relevant in neurosurgical practice. Aims: We evaluated the crush cytology smears in a series of cases where neurosurgical intervention was performed. We studied the role of crush cytology in the intraoperative diagnosis. We report a series of cases where intraoperative crush cytology helped the surgeon revise the surgery during the operation. Materials and Methods: A small portion of all CNS lesions was taken intraoperatively and the tissue was crushed between two slides. The slide was stained using the toluidine blue, Leishman stain, Pap stain and a routine H & E stain. The slides were the evaluated. Results: We evaluated the 50 cases of CNS lesions. We found that intraoperative crush cytology is particularly important in differentiating between neoplastic and nonneoplastic CNS lesions. It may also help in differentiating lymphomas from high-grade gliomas. Finally, crush cytology may help the surgeon in delineating the lesions during surgery. Conclusion: We conclude that crush cytology remains relevant in neurosurgical practice today and it should be adopted in all neurosurgical centers as a routine diagnostic technique.
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Economic cost of schizophrenia in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital p. 39
Ibidunni Olapeju Oloniniyi, Adesanmi Akinsulore, Olutayo Olubunmi Aloba, Boladale Moyosore Mapayi, Olakunle Ayokunmi Oginni, Roger Makanjuola
Objective: This study evaluated the economic cost of schizophrenia in Nigerian patients and identified factors that influence cost. Methods: A total of 100 participants with schizophrenia were assessed using the modified economic cost questionnaire, the mini-international neuropsychiatric interview, the positive and negative syndrome scale, the Liverpool University Neuroleptic side-effect rating scale, and the global assessment of functioning scale. Associations between sociodemographic characteristics, illness-related variables and direct, indirect, and total costs of schizophrenia were assessed. Results: The average annual total, direct, and indirect costs of the treatment were $818.48, $349.59, and $468.89, respectively, per patient. The direct cost constituted 42.7%, while the indirect cost was 57.3% of the total costs of treatment. Hospitalization was the leading contributor to the direct cost, while productivity loss was a major component of the indirect cost. Conclusion: Schizophrenia is an expensive disease in Nigeria, measures to reduce hospitalization could significantly reduce the cost of illness to the patient and their relatives.
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To compare diagnostic ability of contrast-enhanced three-dimensional T1-SPACE with three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and three-dimensional T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo magnetic resonance sequences in patients of meningitis p. 48
Sudesh Kumar, Suresh Kumar, Mukesh Surya, Anjali Mahajan, Sanjiv Sharma
Aims: The aim of this study is to compare postcontrast three-dimensional (3D) T1-Sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using different flip angle evolutions, 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and 3D T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo (MPRAGE) sequences in patients of meningitis. Settings and Design: A hospital-based cross-sectional study done in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, IGMC Shimla for a period of 1 year from June 1, 2016, to May 30, 2017. Subjects and Methods: A total of 30 patients suspected of meningitis underwent magnetic resonance imaging evaluation with postcontrast 3D T1-MPRAGE, 3D T1-SPACE, and 3D FLAIR sequences. The abnormal leptomeningeal enhancement was noted by two radiologists together on these sequences and scores were given to the abnormal leptomeningeal enhancement. Statistical Analysis Used: The sensitivity of 3D T1-SPACE, 3D T1-MPRAGE, and 3D FLAIR was calculated and compared. The level of agreement between these sequences was assessed by kappa coefficient. P < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: 3D T1-SPACE shows superiority in meningeal enhancement along basal cisterns, Sylvian fissure and along cerebral convexities. It is also found to be better in delineating parenchymal lesions. 3D FLAIR failed to demonstrate enhancement along cerebral convexities however found to be better than 3D T1-MPRAGE in delineating enhancement along basal cisterns and Sylvian fissures. 3D T1-MPRAGE has shown subtle enhancement in basal cisterns, Sylvian fissure and along cerebral convexities. 3D T1-SPACE, 3D FLAIR, and 3D T1-MPRAGE has sensitivity of 91.67%, 66.67%, and 54.17%, respectively. Conclusion: Postcontrast 3D T1-SPACE sequence is an excellent tool than postcontrast 3D T1-MPRAGE and 3D FLAIR sequences in the evaluation of meningeal enhancement and depiction of additional lesions in brain parenchyma.
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Caregiver's psychosocial concerns and psychological distress in emergency and trauma care setting p. 54
TR Kanmani, Birudu Raju
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) will be the third largest killer by the year 2020 in the world. It creates the great amount of morbidity, disability, mortality, and reduces the psychosocial well-being of the patients and their caregivers. Hence, the current paper aimed to explore the psychosocial distress and caregivers' concerns in emergency and trauma care (ETC) setting. Methodology: This study adopted qualitative research design. All caregivers of TBI survivors were considered as a universe of the study. A total of 50 caregivers were recruited, and the predesigned questionnaire was administered. Depression, anxiety, stress scale was used to identify the caregivers' depression, stress, and anxiety. The simple thematic analysis was used to derive the themes from the verbatim data. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21.0 (SPSS South Asia Pvt.Ltd, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India). Results: In the quantitative analysis, caregivers' mean age was found to be 45 (mean = 45.00 ± 13.83) years. Caregivers had experienced mild depression (13.36 ± 3.07), moderate anxiety (13.70 ± 3.03), and minimum stress (13.66 ± 2.98) levels. Qualitative results identified the following themes: difficulty in accessing timely care, uncertainty about the prognosis and future, family concerns and financial constraints, personal feelings and personal needs, and supportive care. Chi-square test revealed that there was no significant association between gender and depression (χ2 = 2.381 P < 0.12), anxiety (χ2 = 0.01 P < 0.92), and stress (χ2 = 0.235 P < 0.61) levels of caregivers. Conclusion: To accomplish, providing psychosocial care in ETC setting, the role of psychiatric social workers is pivotal.
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Patterns of illness behaviors and its correlates in patients with chronic nonorganic pain p. 60
Geetha Desai, Thennarasu Kandavel, Santosh K Chaturvedi
Background: Illness behaviors if abnormal can have significant influence in presentations of chronic pain. The aim of the study was to derive the patterns of illness behaviors and its correlates in subjects with chronic nonorganic pain. Methods: Illness Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ) was administered to 301 adult individuals with chronic nonorganic pain. Factor analysis was performed on the IBQ, and relationships of the dimensions of illness behavior with clinical and demographic variables were computed. Results: Majority of the sample consisted of women (n = 208; 69%) with 43% from rural background and 58% from below poverty line status. Principal axis factoring resulted in four factors, namely health concerns, affective inhibition (AI), bodily distress, and affective distress with psychosocial problems. The three factors excluding AI had significant intercorrelation among them. There was significant difference in mean scores of factors, bodily distress and affective distress in patients from urban and rural background. Conclusions: Illness behaviors in chronic nonorganic pain can be understood as three interrelated factors-health concerns, affective distress with psychosocial problems, and bodily distress. AI might be an independent factor for presentation of chronic nonorganic pain.
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The pattern of psychiatric morbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A cross-sectional, Case–Control study from a tertiary care hospital in Kashmir, North India p. 65
Shabir Ahmad Dar, Bilal Ahmad Bhat, Naveed Nazir Shah, Syed Bushra Imtiyaz
Introduction: Psychiatric morbidity has an increased prevalence in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients overall psychosocial status plays an important role in the development of depression which, when major, is said to occur in 19%–42% of cases of COPD. We aimed to study patterns of psychosocial issues in patients with COPD. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted over a period of 6 months in an Outpatient Department of Government Chest Disease Hospital Srinagar. A total of 100 COPD patients and 100 sex- and age-matched controls were included in this study and compared. The diagnosis of COPD was assessed by spirometry. Patterns of psychiatric morbidities were assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: The frequency of psychiatric comorbidities was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in COPD patients (47%) as compared to controls (12%). The highest frequency of psychiatric morbidities in COPD patients was major depressive episode in 28% in comparison to 9% of controls. Other morbidities include panic disorder, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, and suicidality. Conclusion: The frequency of psychiatric morbidities is increased in COPD patients as compared to controls. We recommend that all patients with COPD should be screened for psychiatric morbidity as there is enough scope for psychiatric services to be made available to these patients.
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Clinical spectrum of central nervous system tuberculosis and the efficacy of revised national tuberculosis control program in its management p. 71
E Uma Maheswari, RM Bhoopathy, K Bhanu, Heber Anandan
Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global problem and poses a threat which is of considerable magnitude, with an estimated one-third of the population infected with TB bacillus. Aim: The aim of this study is to study the treatment outcomes in patients with various forms of neurological TB treated with the standardized Revised National TB Control Program (RNTCP), directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS). Materials and Methods: Patients diagnosed to have TBM, tuberculoma with or without spinal arachnoiditis (central nervous system tuberculosis-TB [CNS-TB]) were categorized as per the RNTCP guidelines and received DOTS Category I or Category II thrice-weekly intermittent treatment as deemed appropriate. Results: The outcome of management with the standard RNTCP DOTS regimen was that a success rate (treatment completed) of 75%, the default rate of 6.6%, and a mortality of 3.3%. The target fixed by the RNTCP is to achieve a cure rate of 85%. We were able to document successful completion of treatment in 75% which is close to the target fixed by RNTCP. The default rate is 6.6% which quite negligible when compared to the unsupervised therapy which has a default rate of 50%. Conclusion: The most important factor in predicting the outcome of treatment in CNS-TB is early diagnosis and the timing of initiation of antituberculous treatment. Early initiation of treatment is associated with better treatment outcomes.
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Diagnostic yield and complication of frameless stereotactic brain biopsy p. 78
Chin Taweesomboonyat, Thara Tunthanathip, Sakchai Sae-Heng, Thakul Oearsakul
Background: With the advancement of neuronavigation technologies, frameless stereotactic brain biopsy has been developed. Previous studies proved that frameless stereotactic brain biopsy was as effective and safe as frame-based stereotactic brain biopsy. The authors aimed to find the factors associated with diagnostic yield and complication rate of frameless intracranial biopsy. Materials and Methods: Frameless stereotactic brain biopsy procedures, between March 2009 and April 2017, were retrospectively reviewed from medical records including imaging studies. Using logistic regression analysis, various factors were analyzed for association with diagnostic yield and postoperative complications. Results: Eighty-nine frameless stereotactic brain biopsy procedures were performed on 85 patients. The most common pathology was primary central nervous system lymphoma (43.8%), followed by low-grade glioma (15.7%), and high-grade glioma (15%), respectively. The diagnostic yield was 87.6%. Postoperative intracerebral hematoma occurred in 19% of cases; however, it was symptomatic in only one case. The size of the lesion was associated with both diagnostic yield and postoperative intracerebral hematoma complication. Lesions, larger than 3 cm in diameter, were associated with a higher rate of positive biopsy result (P = 0.01). Lesion 3 cm or smaller than 3 cm in diameter, and intraoperative bleeding associated with a higher percentage of postoperative intracerebral hematoma complications (P = 0.01). Conclusions: For frameless stereotactic brain biopsy, the size of the lesion is the essential factor determining diagnostic yield and postoperative intracerebral hematoma complication.
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Surgical experience in pediatric patients with Chiari-I malformations aged ≤18 years p. 85
Ghanshyam Das Singhal, Shakti Singhal, Gunjan Agrawal, Deepti Singhal, Vipin Arora
Objective: The objective of this study was to retrospectively study Chiari I malformation patients (<18 years) treated surgically. Materials and Methods: Chiari I malformation patients (<18 years) treated surgically at our institute were retrospectively studied. Results: During the study period between January 1999 and June 2011, fifty patients, aged ≤18 years with Chiari malformation, were treated surgically and formed the basis for this series. There were 21 female children (42%) and 29 male children (58%), with a female-to-male ratio of 1:1. At the last follow-up, oropharyngeal symptoms were improved in 33% (n = 3/9). Headache/neck/back pain improved in 69.56% of children (n = 16/23). Upper-extremity pain/weakness/numbness improved in 73.91% of children (n = 17/23). Ataxia improved in 66.66% of children (n = 4/6). Lower-limb weakness/hyperreflexia improved in 83.33% of children (n = 5/6). At follow-up, magnetic resonance imaging for patients with syrinx was available for 75% of patients (n = 30/50) and not available for 25% of patients (n = 10/40). Syrinx was diminished in size or resolved in 66.33% of patients (n = 19/30) and the remaining was same for 36.66% of patients (n = 11/30). Conclusions: The main goal of surgery is to arrest the progression of neurological deficits. Foramen magnum decompression with a lax duroplasty is the surgical procedure of choice.
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Construct validation and reliability assessment of tamil version of epworth sleepiness scale to evaluate daytime sleepiness among adolescents in rural Puducherry, South India p. 89
Yuvaraj Krishnamoorthy, Gokul Sarveswaran, Manikandanesan Sakthivel, A Kalaiselvy, Marie Gilbert Majella, Subitha Lakshminarayanan
Background: Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) has been used widely in the assessment of daytime sleepiness for research and clinical purposes. Hence, this study was done to translate the ESS in Tamil and to assess the construct validity and reliability of the Tamil version among adolescents in rural Puducherry, South India. Materials and Methods: Translation of the ESS by native language experts and pilot tested with subsample of adolescents. Final Tamil version was administered among 789 Tamil-speaking adolescents in the selected villages of rural Puducherry (union territory in South India). Construct validity was assessed by exploratory factor analysis through principal component method. Confirmatory factor analysis was done to obtain the goodness-of-fit. Reliability of questionnaire was assessed through Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results: Two factor structures were obtained with Eigenvalues of 3.49 and 1.09, respectively. Both factors accounted for about 57.4% of the variance. Two-factor model assessed by confirmatory factor method found Chi-square value of 215.57 (P < 0.001). Goodness-of-fit revealed acceptable comparative fit indices (0.91). The reliability coefficient (Cronbach's alpha) for complete ESS was 0.81. Factor-based analysis showed that the Cronbach's reliability coefficient was 0.83 and 0.75 for the first and second factor, respectively. Conclusion: Our study concludes that the ESS questionnaire is internally valid and consistent with good reliability coefficient for application in Tamil-speaking rural adolescents. However, further research can be done to content validate the questionnaire with standard diagnostic tool.
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Serum interleukin-6 is not linked with sleep-quality, restless legs syndrome, and depression, but with 6-month survival in hematological malignancies p. 94
Smita Chandra, Vibha Gupta, Harish Chandra, Mohan Dhyani, Aarti Kotwal, Sanjiv Kumar Verma, Ravi Gupta
Background: Serum interleukin (IL)-6 has been found to be associated with sleep quality, mood, and survival in patients with solid tumors. Results in these studies were confounded by knowledge of diagnosis to study subjects. Moreover, such data among subjects with hematological malignancies and data regarding restless legs syndrome is limited. The present study was, therefore, conducted to assess the sleep quality, depression, and restless leg syndrome in hematological malignancies and to study if there is any role of IL6 associated with it. Methods: Sixty-six subjects having hematological malignancy were included in this study after excluding the potential confounders. Sleep quality was examined using Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, depression by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Diagnosis of RLS was made through clinical examination. Serum for measurement of IL-6 was collected at baseline and after 1 month of initiation of chemotherapy. Patients were followed up for 6 months. Results: Average age of study subjects was 50.16 years with male predominance. Nearly 22.7% had clinical depression, 28.8% had poor quality sleep, and restless legs syndrome (RLS) was reported in 6.1% cases. Nearly 22.7% patients died at 6 months. Disturbed sleep at baseline was associated with depression (odds ratio [OR] =7.89) and poor 6 months survival. Serum IL-6 did not show any association with sleep quality, restless-legs-syndrome, and depression. However, baseline high level of serum IL-6 (OR = 26.06) and low level after chemotherapy (OR = 0.03) were associated with poor survival at 6 months. Conclusion: Poor quality sleep, depression, and RLS are prevalent among adult subjects with hematological malignancies. Sleep disturbance, high pretreatment inflammatory and lowering of inflammatory load after chemotherapy increase likelihood for poor prognosis. Serum IL-6 did not show any association with sleep quality, restless legs syndrome and depression.
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Collaborative tele-neuropsychiatry consultation services for patients in central prisons p. 101
Preethi Pansari Agarwal, Narayana Manjunatha, Guru S Gowda, MN Girish Kumar, Neelaveni Shanthaveeranna, Channaveerachari Naveen Kumar, Suresh Bada Math
Background: Tele-medicine helps to provide clinical care comparable to in-person treatment in various clinical settings. It is a novel system of healthcare delivery in both low-resource settings and sites where adequate medical care continues to pose greatest challenge like in prison's in India and worldwide. Aim: To study the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients from Central Prisons, having received collaborative Tele-Neuropsychiatric Care. Methodology: Psychiatry, neurology, and neurosurgery specialists provided tele-neuropsychiatry consultation through Specialist–Doctor–Patient model as part of the state-run program for the two central prisons from July 1, 2014, to June 30, 2016. A retrospective file review was done of the tele-neuropsychiatry case records at Tele-Medicine Centre, Located at Tertiary Neuro Psychiatric centre of South India. Results: A total of 53 patients were provided tele-neuropsychiatric consultation over 2-year period. Of these, 48 (90.6%) were male and 34 (64.1%) were aged more than 30 years. In total, 20.7% of them had severe mental illness, i.e., schizophrenia and mood disorders, 20.7% with substance use disorder (alcohol and cannabis), 17% had anxiety disorders while 17% with seizure disorder. Nearly 81.1% of patients (inmates) were advised pharmacotherapy while 18.9% were suggested further evaluation of illness and inpatient care at the higher center. Conclusion: The collaborative care was successful in delivering psychiatry, neurology, and neurosurgery consultation with a Specialist–Doctor–Patient model to prison inmates.
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Nonadherence to antiepileptic medications: Still a major issue to be addressed in the management of epilepsy p. 106
Azra Zafar, Rizwana Shahid, Saima Nazish, Danah Aljaafari, Fahd Ali Alkhamis, Sadiq Alsalman, Amir H Msmar, Badaruddin Abbasi, Abdulla A Alsulaiman, Majed Alabdali
Context: Medication nonadherence is a significant barrier in achieving seizure freedom in patients with epilepsy. There is a deficiency of data about the reasons for nonadherence in Saudi population. Aims: The aim of this study is to prove the existence of nonadherence to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in patients with epilepsy and identify the responsible factors. Setting and Design: This is a prospective, cross-sectional study carried in the Department of Neurology at King Fahd Hospital of the University affiliated with Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University. Subjects and Methods: Patients of all ages diagnosed to have epilepsy as mentioned in their medical record and taking antiepileptic medications were interviewed using a questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Statistical significance was defined as two-tailed with a P ≤ 0.05. Results: Among 152 participants, 52.6% were male and 47.4% were female. Mean age of the patients was 28 ± 14.3 (mean ± standard deviation) years. Of 152 patients, 48.7% were found to be nonadherent to their AED therapy. The most commonly identified factor was forgetfulness. Nonadherence was significantly associated with poor seizure control (P = 0.002). Conclusion: Nonadherence to the AED is common among patients with epilepsy and affects seizure control adversely.
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Burr-hole evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma: Biophysically and evidence-based technique improvement p. 113
Martin Májovský, David Netuka, Vladimír Beneš, Pavel Kucera
Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the most common neurosurgical conditions. Despite ongoing efforts, recurrence and reoperation rates after surgical treatment remain high. We synthesize scientific evidence on the treatment of CSDH with biophysical principles and then propose a simple and effective surgical technique aiming to reduce the recurrence rate. Under local anesthesia, one burr hole is placed in the area above the maximum hematoma thickness. One drain is inserted into the dorsal direction to the deepest point of the hematoma cavity, and a second drain is inserted frontally into the highest point. Next, saline is gently instilled to the dorsal drain to eliminate air from the hematoma cavity through the frontal drain. Once saline has filled the frontal drain, the frontal drain is removed. The dorsal drain is left in situ for 48 h, and the pressure within the cavity may be adapted hydrostatically. We implemented evidence-based conclusions of previous studies and modified the classical burr-hole technique to reduce the recurrence rate. As a result, we developed a straightforward surgical procedure that is possible to perform under local anesthesia, suitable for everyday practice in rural and remote areas while working with limited resources. The novelty of this technique is in the purposeful reduction of postoperative pneumocephalus, a known independent factor of recurrence. Subdural air is eliminated during surgery using a two-drain system. Safety and efficacy of the technique need to be evaluated in future clinical trials.
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Commentary p. 118
Matteo Zoli, Alessandra Serracchioli, Diego Mazzatenta
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Commentary p. 120
Keyvan Tayebi Meybodi
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Commentary p. 120
Ryota Mashiko
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Commentary p. 121
Murat Sakir Eksi
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Thalamic hamartoma presenting with tremor p. 123
Niraj Kumar, Deepak Kumar
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Os Odontoideum p. 125
Arthur Robert Kurzbuch, Jean-Yves Fournier
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Osmotic demyelination syndrome - Evolution of extrapontine before pontine myelinolysis on magnetic resonance imaging p. 126
Prerna Garg, Abhisht Aggarwal, Rajeev Malhotra, Sanjay Dhall
Osmotic demyelination syndrome is a rare entity characterized by noninflammatory demyelination afflicting the central pons, basal ganglia, thalami, peripheral cortex, and hippocampi. Histopathologically, there is a destruction of myelin sheaths sparing the underlying neuronal axons due to the susceptibility of oligodendrocytes to rapid osmotic shifts often encountered in chronically debilitated patients. We present the temporal progression of signal abnormalities on sequential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in a middle-aged male initially presenting with altered mental status due to severe hyponatremia and subsequently developing rigidity, diagnosed as osmotic demyelination syndrome based on typical imaging findings and supportive laboratory parameters. This case demonstrates the importance of diffusion signal abnormalities as the first indicator of osmotic demyelination, evolution of extrapontine before pontine signal changes and the relative lack of correlation between patient's clinical profile and the extent of MRI signal abnormalities.
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See-saw relationship and its reversal after immunotherapy in a case of Graves' disease with coexisting myasthenia gravis p. 136
Sathish Kumar Mallikarjuna, S Sakthi Velayutham, PR Sowmini, Malcolm K Jeyaraj, S Arunan
The unique association of myasthenia gravis (MG) with Graves' disease in clinical practice emphasizes that one autoimmune disease can coexist with another or many. The relationship between these two entities has remained controversial till date. Some authors have reported a see-saw relationship between these two entities, MG waning with hyperthyroidism and waxing with treatment of hyperthyroidism. Treatment of both these disorders concurrently may be challenging at times as treatment for one entity may worsen the other. The use of beta-blockers and steroids for Graves' disease may worsen myasthenic weakness. Antithyroid drugs can worsen myasthenia probably by immunomodulatory effects. We report a case of Graves' disease coexisting with MG in a reciprocal relationship which was subsequently reversed after immunotherapy.
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Complete femoral nerve transection with sural nerve cable graft in a 21-month-old child p. 139
Pranati Pillutla, Evan Nix, Benjamin Wallace Elberson, Laszlo Nagy
Severe peripheral nerve injury occasionally requires urgent nerve grafting especially with significant separation of the proximal and distal ends of the injured nerve. Proper reinnervation to provide continued sensory and motor function is essential especially in the pediatric population. These patients would suffer lifelong disability without correction, yet have significantly improved regenerative capacity with prompt and effective management, making nerve grafts an ideal choice for complete nerve transection. This case report describes the successful sural nerve cable graft reinnervation of a transected femoral nerve in a 21-month-old male. This procedure was made difficult by severe trauma to the surrounding area with laceration of the femoral artery, significant separation of the femoral nerve ends, and the compact anatomy of such a young patient.
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Regrowth of a large intracranial aneurysm after on-label use of the pipeline embolization device p. 142
Ching-Jen Chen, M Rao Patibandla, Min S Park, M Yashar Kalani
Despite the widespread use of the pipeline embolization device (PED), no complete aneurysm regrowth after its placement has been reported in the literature. We report the first case of aneurysm regrowth after the initial follow-up angiography demonstrating near-complete occlusion of the aneurysm and remodeling of the vessel with on-label PED use for a large 20 mm × 24 mm × 22 mm (width × depth × height) cavernous segment internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm. The patient was treated with two overlapping PED (4.5 mm × 20 mm and 5 mm × 20 mm). Follow-up angiogram at 4 months after treatment demonstrated remodeling of the ICA with a small residual component measuring approximately 7 mm × 8 mm × 7 mm. However, at 10 months after treatment, there was a complete regrowth of the aneurysm with interval growth, now measuring 25 mm × 28 mm × 18 mm. Despite the high aneurysm occlusion rates reported with the PED, persistent aneurysm filling and aneurysm regrowth, although rare, should not be overlooked.
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Wake-up sleepyhead: Unilateral diencephalic stroke presenting with excessive sleepiness p. 145
R Pradeep, Dhananjay Gupta, Anish Mehta, R Srinivasa, Mahendra Javali, PT Acharya
Altered sleep architecture and stroke share a reciprocal relationship. More than half of the stroke patients display sleep abnormalities including hypersomnia, insomnia, parasomnia, periodic limb movements, or sleep-disordered breathing. Conversely, one of the major causes of severe organic hypersomnia is acute brainstem strokes, involving thalamic infarctions, which may be reversible over 6–12 months. Here, we report a patient with increased lethargy and drowsiness who was diagnosed to have a right thalamic and hypothalamic ischemic stroke.
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Infratentorial epidural abscess secondary to furunculosis: Case report and a review of the literature p. 148
Ricardo Horacio Menéndez, Santiago German Erice, Emmanuel Alejandro Vázquez, Karina Breitburd
The authors describe a case of infratentorial epidural abscess caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in a patient with a recent history of cutaneous furunculosis. This 29-year-old male presented with an occipital headache associated with fever, vomiting, and neck stiffness. Admission magnetic resonance imaging showed a retrocerebellar epidural abscess. Antimicrobial therapy was started, and the patient underwent craniectomy for evacuation of the abscess. Cultures of the surgical specimen were consistent with CA-MRSA. Postoperatively, the patient's condition improved with the resolution of symptoms, and he was discharged home with indication of 6 weeks of antibiotic therapy. Furunculosis is a very rare cause of intracranial epidural abscess but should be considered as a source of infection in an immunocompetent patient.
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Chance fracture in an unbelted rear seat passenger p. 151
Abiodun Idowu Okunlola, Augustine Abiodun Adeolu
Chance fracture occurs from flexion-distraction injury in motor vehicle road crash usually when the patient is on a seat belt. It is often associated with intra-abdominal injuries. We managed a 22-year old female unbelted rear seat passenger of a bus which was involved in a lone accident. We highlighted the possible mechanism of chance fracture in an unbelted passenger and satisfactory spinal stability on conservative care with neither internal nor external fixation.
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Clinical case presentation on absence seizures diagnosis and treatment care services and outcomes in an adult patient p. 154
MS Umashankar, A Bharath Kumar
Absence seizures are often associated with impaired or loss of consciousness clinically proved to have an impact on motor and cognitive abnormalities of the nerve cells of the brain. Seizure admits several etiopathophysiological events leading to several neurofunctional changes in the reticulothalamocortical circuitry zones of the central nervous system. This paves the episodes of absence seizure events. A clinical case report of absence seizure in a 25 years age adult patient came to the hospital with impaired consciousness. The brain magnetic resonance imaging scanning of the patient detected a small focal flair hypertensive area in the right parasellar region close to cavernous sinus with mild flair hypersensitivity in the left cavernous sinuses, right maxillary, and ethmoid sinusitis. The electroencephalogram of the brain showed normal waves with electrode artifacts was observed. The patient was confirmed with absence seizures, and he was treated with oxcarbazepine 150 mg twice daily. The patient was recovered from seizure and discharged with medications. He was called for follow-up examination once in 3-month period.
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Rare case of sellar and suprasellar metastasis from ewing's sarcoma of tibia p. 158
Vinita Gupta, Kirti Aggarwal, Prateek Nishant, Rajnish Kumar Arora
We hereby report a case of metastatic Ewing's sarcoma presenting with rapid-onset total ophthalmoplegia, optic atrophy, and right temporal hemianopia. Comprehensive ophthalmic and neurological evaluation with targeted radioimaging revealed a tumor mass centered over the sella, compressing optic chiasma, extending to involve the left cavernous sinus and the left orbital apex. Whole-body imaging revealed the evidence of multifocal lung and mediastinal metastasis with focal lytic defect in the left femoral head. Histopathological evaluation of transnasal punch biopsy from the nasopharyngeal extension of the tumor revealed small round-cell tumor with strong CD99 positivity, supporting the diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma. Rapid, aggressive extensions of the metastatic tumor into vital structures despite the initiation of chemoradiation of the extensive intracranial tumor led to unexpected demise of the patient. Our case is an unusual case of Ewing's sarcoma metastasis manifesting as a sellar mass and mimicking a pituitary adenoma radiologically, with a rapid progression within 2 weeks to cause massive extension of tumor into suprasellar, infrasellar, and left parasellar area, indicative of highly malignant nature of the tumor.
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Commentary p. 162
Jonathan Douglas Santoro, Taylor Nicole Santoro
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Subcutaneous cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst: An unusual complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt p. 164
Batuk Diyora, Bhagyashri Bhende, Gagan Dhall, Hanumant Kamble, Naren Nayak
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Commentary p. 166
Guru Dutta Satyarthee
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Commentary p. 167
Wail Mohammed
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Infected internal pulse generator of a spinal cord stimulator device treated successfully without removal: A case report p. 168
Aristedis Rovlias
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Takayasu arteritis with cerebral hypoperfusion: An unusual case p. 170
Rajeev Chauhan, Ankur Luthra, Sachin Mahajan
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